This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 17th International Workshop on Multi-Agent-Based Simulation, MABs 2016, held in Singapore, in May 2016. The workshop was held in Conjunction with the 15th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, AAMAS 2016. The 10 revised full papers included in this volume were carefully selected from 15 submissions. The topic of the papers is about modeling and analyzing multi-agent systems and applying agent-based simulation techniques to real-world problems, focusing on the confluence of socio-technical- natural sciences and multi-agents systems with a strong application/empirical vein. Special emphasis is given on exploratory agent-based simulation as a principled way of undertaking scientific research in the social sciences and on using social theories as an inspiration to new frameworks and developments in multi-agent systems.