This unique and informative paper was produced by the National Intelligence University / National Defense Intelligence College. Who Watches the Watchmen? could hardly be more timely as we debate the recent leaking of the largest trove of documents in American history. The "WikiLeaks" case drives home the need for what this book lays out: an approach to protecting classified information that goes beyond law enforcement. Gary Ross' application of Rational Choice Theory codifies, organizes, and extends what many of us have been trying to do instinctively when dealing with unauthorized disclosures. In Ross' discussions of "motivations" and "justifications," I see powerful echoes of what I personally experienced as Director of NSA and CIA. I only wish I had had access to this fully developed intellectual framework and the courses of action it suggests while still in government. - General Michael V. Hayden
Topics and subjects include: Wikileaks, Bay of Pigs, Pentagon Papers, Iraq, CIA detention facilities, Afghanistan, U-2 flights over Soviet Union, Iran National Intelligence Estimate, Ivy Bells, Julian Assange, CIA family jewels, Scooter Libby, Valerie Plame.
CHAPTER 1 * Conflicting Principles * Where You Stand Depends on Where You Sit * The Scope of Unauthorized Disclosures in the United States * Researching the Topic * Responding Through Law: The "Espionage Act" * Seeking an Alternative to a Legislative Solution * The Difficulty Identifying Leakers: A Thousand Grains of Sand * Statutory Abuses and Efforts to Prevent Unauthorized Disclosures * Rational Choice Theory: An Alternative to a Legislative Approach * CHAPTER 2 * Journalist Motivations and Justifications * Journalist Motivations for Disclosing Classified Information * Altruistic Motivation - Promoting Informed Debate * Pentagon Papers * Bay of Pigs * Altruistic Motivation - Exposing Government Misconduct * The Family Jewels * Colonel Alpirez * Non-Altruistic Motivation - Advancing Corporate Interests * Pentagon Papers * Non-Altruistic Motivation - Advancing Personal Interests * Veil * State of War * Collateral Murder * Non-Altruistic Motivation - Advancing Foreign Interests * Journalist Justifications for Disclosing Classified Information * Justification - Government Overclassification * Justification - Continued Toleration for Politically Advantageous Disclosures * Pre-War Intelligence on Iraq * Stealth * Justification - Inadequacy of Congressional Oversight * Justification - Legal Protection for the Press under the First Amendment * Justification - The Ability of the Media to Handle Classified Information Responsibly * U-2 * IVY BELLS * Project AZORIAN * Hostage Crises * Pentagon Papers * CIA Detention Facilities * Terrorist Surveillance Program * SWIFT Banking * U.S. Troops in Afghanistan * Government Employees and Their Motivations: The "Supply Side" * Conclusion * CHAPTER 3 * The Cost of Disclosing Classified Information: Identifying Harm * Categories of Harm * Damage to Sources and Methods * Soviet ICBM Testing * Operation BROADSIDE * Project AZORIAN * OBELISK * SWIFT Banking * Operation MERLIN * National Intelligence Estimate — Iran * Potential Loss of Life * Counterspy and Covert Action Bulleting * Mossad in Syria * Beirut Barracks * TWA Flight 847 * PURPLE and MAGIC * Disclosure of U.S. Military Field Report by WikiLeaks * Koran Desecration * CIA Recruiting Iranians * Soviet Mechanic * Impact on the Development and Implementation of Foreign Policy * Troop Levels in Afghanistan . * National Intelligence Estimate — Iran * Covert Action in Pakistan * Support to Egyptian Operation * Non-Lethal Presidential Findings * Effect on International Alliances * Net-Centric Diplomacy * Hadley Memo * Stinger Missiles to Angola * Military Aircraft to Taiwan * Curveball * CIA Detention Facilities * Pakistani Collaboration with Afghan Insurgents * Financial Costs * Project AZORIAN * Project GREEK ISLAND