The nineteenth century was a time when the world was becoming increasingly connected through global forces and networks. Colonial and capitalist expansion was bringing the world into closer contact while nationalism and forms of indigenous resistance were shaping and moulding the world on more local and regional scales. This dynamic environment was the backdrop for a time when childhood was becoming significantly elaborated as a cultural category of identity. Institutions, objects, and places specifically designed for children were multiplying at an unprecedented rate; writing about children in fiction and non-fiction became increasingly prolific; and the concern for children’s health and well-being in life and death was paramount in many communities. Scholarship on the nineteenth century spans many disciplines and areas of interest and utilizes diverse and abundant source material to study a period recognized as foundational for our modern, globalized world. This volume brings together scholars from archaeology, art history, bioarchaeology, educational history, history, literary studies, and theater history to present studies of nineteenth century children and childhood in Australia, the Bahamas, Canada, England, Ireland, Native North America, Romania, Russia, and the United States. The interdisciplinary focus of this volume illustrates the wealth of sources, methods, and perspectives that can be used to develop our understandings of childhood in the nineteenth century, and the international scope of the studies offers a platform to engage commonalities in an increasingly globalized world alongside an appreciation for local, regional, and national variations in the cultural creation and experiences of childhood.