This book provides thorough knowledge and detailed information of oil shales using a range of conventional and unconventional techniques and methodologies combined to elucidate the composition of oil shale deposits. As these rocks are mined for energy production their composition and mineral constituents are of special interests to individuals and communities that are likely to be effected by these resources when mined and processed. The book highlights the environmental and health hazards of the spent shales after processing. These are significantly greater in volume than the rocks originally mined before processing. Toxic metals tend to double and triple their concentrations in the spent shales and will be leached into water sources and soils.Since oil shales as an energy resource are totally uneconomical; all oil shales, their mining and processing are heavily subsidised by governments and institutions using taxpayers money.