During the nineteenth century, the Age of Nationalism, small stateless nations all over Europe developed successful national movements which demanded rights for minority language communities. One of the central questions of Welsh history is why this didn’t happen in Wales.
Welsh patriotism emphasised radicalism and liberalism, which subsumed Wales within the discourse of British progressive politics. Liberalism promotes majoritarian identities, and in Wales is a key component of British hegemony. Wales in the nineteenth century was more liberal and radical than almost any other country in Europe. Contrary to the popular view that this was a boost for Welsh nationalism, Pam na fu Cymru (Why Wales never happened) shows that this was the very reason for its failure.