Globalisation has become a rewarding but challenging fact of life for scientific and scholarly researchers. Intellectually, they work with shared understandings of their areas of research and research methods. Professionally, responsibility and best practices are subject to many different rules and standards that vary across disciplines, countries, and cultures. They know how to measure and study the objects of their research but are often less sure of what constitutes the responsible practice of research or research integrity. The World Conferences on Research Integrity provide a forum for an international group of researchers, research administrators from funding agencies and similar bodies, research organisations performing research, universities and policy makers to discuss and make recommendations on ways to improve, harmonise, publicise, and make operationally effective international policies for the responsible conduct of research. The second such conference, held in Singapore in July 2010, focused on challenges and responses. Where is integrity in research today most significantly challenged and what is being done to address these challenges? This volume brings together a selection of presentations and key guidelines and statements emerging from the Conference.Contents: Section I: Welcomes: Introduction Opening Address by the Minister for Education and Second Minister for Defence (Ng Eng Hen) Welcome by the President of Nanyang Technological University (Su Guaning) Welcome by the Chairman of A*STAR (Lim Chuan Poh) Welcome by the Vice President for Research Strategy, National University of Singapore(Seeram Ramakrishna) Welcome by the President of Singapore Management University (Howard Hunter) Section II: Research Integrity Structures: Developing Research Integrity Structures: Nationally and Internationally (Christine C Boesz) Stakeholder Leadership in Addressing Research Integrity Challenges (Howard Alper) Research Integrity Challenges — A Singapore Perspective (Lee Eng Hin) European Science Foundation and Research Integrity (Ian Halliday) France: How to Improve a Decentralized, Ambiguous National System (Jean-Pierre Alix) Research Integrity in the Canadian Context (Ronald Heslegrave) Research Integrity in New Zealand (Sylvia Rumball & John O'Neill) Challenges Encountered by the Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences When Introducing Concepts for Promoting Scientific Integrity (Emilio Bossi) The Integrity of Researchers in Japan: Will Enforcement Replace Responsibility? (Tohru Masui) National, Institutional and International Approaches to Research Integrity: An Australian Perspective (Ren Yi) Finland: How to Revise National Research Integrity Guidelines in the Changing International Landscape? (Eero Vuorio) Acting After Learning in Europe (Dirk G de Hen) Views on Research Integrity in the Commonwealth of Independent State (Boris Yudin) Section III: Research Misconduct: The Black, the White and the Grey Areas: Towards an International and Interdisciplinary Definition of Scientific Misconduct (Daniele Fanelli) Keynote Address: Promoting Integrity in Research (David L Vaux) Does Peer Review Work as a Self-Policing Mechanism in Preventing Misconduct: A Case Study of a Serial Plagiarist (Ben R Martin) Scientific Falsifications in and out of Science (Edward P Kruglyakov) The Need for Greater Attention Regarding Research Integrity in Mexico (José A Cuellar) Section IV: Codes of Conduct: A Framework for Examining Codes of Conduct on Research Integrity (Melissa S Anderson & Marta A Shaw) Dilemmas for Ethical Guidelines for the Sciences (Matthias Kaiser) Levels of Responsibility (John Sulston) The European Code of Conduct for Research Integrity (Pieter J D Drenth) A Report from the European Forum for Good Clinical Practice (Frank Wells) Lessons from 17 Years with National Guidelines for Research Ethics in Norway (Ragnvald Kalleberg) Society for Scientific Values: A Movement to Promote Ethics in the Conduct of Science (Ashima...