Abstract An association between Meniere's disease and psychological distress is frequently reported. Patients who do not have Meniere's disease but who have similar symptoms also experience various kinds of psychological disturbances. We conducted a study to investigate the relationship between Meniere's disease and personality traits, illness behavior, depression, and anxiety. We compared these factors in 77 patients who had Meniere's disease and 133 controls who did not have the disease but had one of its symptoms--either vertigo, tinnitus, or hearing loss. The mental status of study participants was assessed with standard tests. Patients in both groups had higher than normal levels of anxiety and neuroticism. The only significant difference between the two groups was a higher rate of extroversion in the Meniere's disease group. Minor differences emerged when Meniere's patients with tinnitus or vertigo were compared with similar controls. Relationships between psychological observations and otologic symptomatology or an otologic diagnosis were not specific, which illustrates the need to consider the role of illness behavior and personality as targets for psychological support or therapy associated with ENT treatment.