It is commonly accepted that the initial Jewish resettlement of the Holy Land in the late nineteenth century laid the foundations of the State of Israel. But what were the key elements of that process, and who implemented it? What did the new enterprise look like, and what was its significance? These important yet often poorly understood issues are reconstructed and analyzed in this unique study. Ran Aaronsohn provides fresh insight into the role played by Baron Edmond de Rothschild through his many and diverse agents (Othe administrationO) in the Jewish settlement movement and places the endeavor in global perspective by comparing it to the phenomenon of colonization throughout the world. The author draws upon a wide array of sources_including primary archival material from Israel and France_and illustrates his narrative with maps and historical photos to create a richly detailed picture of a crucial period in Jewish history.