Rural development became a planning concern as it became clear that the strategies adopted in developing countries remained largely ineffective in alleviating poverty and inequalities in rural areas. Development of rural areas and the rural people has become the primary concern of the economic planning and development process of the country. It became increasingly clear that apart from an effort to increase agricultural and industrial production, it is also necessary to address directly the basic problems of rural area. The increasing interest in rural development is a result of the realization that a systematic effort is necessary to create better living conditions in the rural areas where the vast majority of populations of developing countries reside.Creation of more effective employment opportunities and exploring new avenues for their engagement in economically gainful activities will go a long way in ameliorating rural India. No doubt, formulation and implementation of various rural development schemes/ programmes have touched many a milestone, yet a lot remain still to be done. This edited book examines the basic issues, problems, policies, programmes and prospects of rural development in India.It is clear that rural development, in its all dimensions, is sine qua non for a strong and vibrating nation like India which aspires for becoming a super power in the world. It is also true that no nation can survive if it ignores its vast human potential in general developmental process and rural people in particular because development is above all a human process and not just a mechanical or technological change.Let us hope for a bright future for rural India and rural people.