Islam in Russia is full of surprises. It suffered serious human and institutional losses during periods of extreme intolerance. In the nineteenth century, for example, Tsarist Russia rested on "orthodoxy, autocracy, populism"--the three "root essences" of Russian society put forth by Count Sergey Uvarov, the president of the Russian Academy of Sciences, in 1833. Muslims in the North Caucasus region at times resisted two of those pillars--adherence to the Russian Orthodox Church and submission to Russian rule--and suffered persecution for their resistance. Under the Soviet Union's cult of militant atheism all religions were suppressed, and Islam was certainly no exception. The character of Islam in Russia has been affected for centuries by its close proximity to Slavic and Finno-Ugric cultures. But despite such challenges, the faith has survived in Russia, and its tenacity speaks to the devotion of the country's Muslim communities. For the first time in 2007, the Gallup Poll provided a rare look at Russia's estimated 15 to 20 million Muslims. Gallup asked respondents in Russia: "Do you consider yourself to be religious, or not?" Those responding affirmatively were then asked for their religious affiliation. In addition to the national sample, supplementary interviews were conducted in two regions, Dagestan and Tatarstan, with high concentrations of Muslim residents. The resulting sample contained a total of 673 Russian Muslims.