This book provides the first comprehensive overview of saline and alkaline soils in Latin America, known for having one of the most extensive surface of salt-affected soils in the world. It is organized along two main axes: soils and vegetation. The book discusses the occurrence of such soils in the region, focusing mainly in management strategies for their sustainable use, and it presents accounts of natural vegetation and crops in the various environments of the region. Social impacts of such conditions and ongoing projects to overcome them are considered. Likewise, the book highlights physiological mechanisms that are responsible for the negative effects these soils exert on crops and forest resources and determine vegetation distribution in them. Plant breeding challenges and new perspectives for such environments are discussed. Technologies such as irrigation and drainage are included. The readership includes soil and plant scientists, as well as policy makers.