Originally published in 1973, the chapters in this volume tackle a wide range of problems arising from this process of modernization. The first section looks at the discussion of ideas and theories about administration in the nineteenth century, when some organizational ideology became firmly-rooted and went unquestioned for many years. These chapters also examine the inevitable questions of reform and major reorganization which later arose in the United States, Britain and elsewhere.
The second section moves on from the theory and practice of administrative structures to some consideration of practical problems within organizations, problems of personnel and administrative method. Management questions of staff conditions and careers and job differentiation are examined, and the Fulton report on reform in such areas is discussed.
The final group of chapters looks at a variety of substantive issues such as defence and civil-military relations, the advent of independence from colonial government, development policies and development administration. Two major themes emerge. One concerns the extent to which administrative organizations are instruments to be used or institutions which exercise an almost autonomous control over our lives; to what extent is public policy translated into real terms by the institutions concerned? The second theme is concerned with the impact of institution on people, both in terms of broad policy and programmes and in practical, day-to-day communication across the counter between rank-and-file bureaucrat and the ordinary citizen.