What is Europe? What are the contents of the concept of Europe? And what defines European identity? Instead of only asking these classical questions, this volume also explores who asks these questions, and who is addressed with such questions. Who answers the questions, from which standpoints and for what reasons? Which philosophical, historical, religious or political traditions influence the answers? This book addresses its task in three parts. The first concentrates on the controversies around the meaning of Europe. The second focuses on the role of the European Union. The third discusses Europe and its relations to different types of otherness, or rather, non-European-ness. The volume produces a complex and plural picture of the concepts, ideas, debates and (ex)changes associated with the concept of Europe, and has a clear significance for today’s debates on European identity, Europeanization, and the EU.