Immigrants supply labor and skills that are in relatively short supply in the domestic labor market and account for almost half of U.S. labor force growth since the mid-1990s. Surprisingly, only a small fraction of immigrant workers enter on employment-based visas. Because of U.S. law, family-based migrants receive the great majority of permanent resident visas. Among employment-based immigrants, high-skilled workers particularly benefit the economy. Their immigration alleviates shortages in key science, health, and technology occupations and spurs innovation and R&D investment. High-skilled workers also have a positive fiscal impact, contributing more in tax payments than they use in public services. Economic gains from migration begin with immigrants’ participation in the labor force, making employment-based immigration policy especially important because it matches foreign workers to domestic labor demand. Immigration policy that prioritizes work, education, and skills and brings in more high-skilled immigrants is an important reform that will enhance gains from migration.