Introduction During the past five years, the federal government has given $3 million to Australian museums to repatriate Aboriginal cultural heritage. As part of this project, my colleagues and I at Melbourne Museum investigated over 1500 ceremonial objects housed in the Museum's storerooms. Our aim was to establish the provenance for each object, identify the owners and arrange for their return. Most of the objects--or churingas--originated in Central Australia and were associated with secret men's ceremonies. Ultimately, we were only able to determine the ownership of little more than 100 objects. In August 2004, I conveyed these churingas back to their owners in Central Australia.