Book discuss the history of Church. Any quarrel for judgment beyond the country in which it began; and, however glad the churches of Africa and of the East were to have the bishop of Rome for a friend, they would never allow him to take the airs of a master on him. And from the time when Constantinople was built in the place of Byzantium, a new great church arose. Byzantium had been only a common bishopric, and for a time Constantinople was not called anything more than a common bishopric; but in real importance it was very much more, so that even a bishop of Antioch, the third see in the whole Christian world, thought himself advanced when he was made bishop of Constantinople instead. But the second General Council (which as we have seen was held at Constantinople in the year 381), made a canon by which Constantinople was placed next to Rome, " because, " as the canon said, "it is a new Rome. " This raised the jealousy, not only of Antioch, and still more of Alexandria, at having an upstart bishopric (as they considered it) put over their heads; but it gave great offence to the bishops of Rome, who could not bear such a rivalry as was now threatened, and were besides very angry on account of the reason which was given for placing Constantinople next after Rome. For the council, when it Page 73. said that Constantinople was to be second among all churches, because of its being " a new Rome, " meant to say that the reason why Rome itself stood first was nothing more than its being the old capital of the empire, whereas the bishops of Rome wished it to be thought that their power was founded on their being the successors of St. Peter. We shall by-and-by see something of the effects of these jealousies.