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Beschreibung des Verlags
In German-speaking countries, since the introduction of the DIN 33430 standard for proficiency assessment (DIN, 2002), there has been a uniform definition for requirement analysis (DIN, 2002, p.12): A (...) job and requirement analysis (...) should be the basis of a proficiency assessment. The requirement analysis should investigate the job, education, occupation or occupational task characteristics relevant for occupational success and satisfaction. All aptitude characteristics, including their degree of development, necessary for the satisfaction of the requirements should be derived from the requirement analysis.
We also find the term job or occupation analysis in German-speaking countries (Hacker, 1995; Schuler, 2006). Job analysis refers to methods (...) of identifying the psychological, physical and social environmental conditions and organizational characteristics of a work or training location, of job-related tasks or the circumstances of their execution. (DIN 33430, 2002, p.4). This definition makes a clear differentiation between job analyses and requirement analyses. The aim of a job analysis is to describe the activities and tasks of a job and the conditions under which these are performed. So job analysis addresses the question What. In addition to this we use a requirement analysis to determine the characteristics of the job that are relevant for occupational success. So here the question being addressed is how someone needs to perform a job successfully so that their performance satisfies the aims of the enterprise.
This differentiation between the terms job analysis and requirement analysis is mainly to be found in German-speaking countries. The terms are often used in tandem to correspond with the comprehensive meaning of the term job and work analysis as it is widely used in English (Sackett & Laczco, 2003, Schuler, 2006; Voskuijl, 2005). Nevertheless it makes sense to differentiate between a job analysis and a requirement analysis. For one thing, this allows, for example, methods to be appropriately evaluated and selected (cf. section 2.3). Another reason is that the results yielded by job analyses and requirement analyses are actually different. The results of a requirement analysis are a requirement profile. This contains the sum of all requirements of the target position, detailed descriptions of these requirements as well as information on how important the requirements are and the extent to which they can be trained and compensated for (Koch & Westhoff, 2009; Westhoff & Kluck, 2008). In contrast, the results of a work analysis can be summarized in a job description. This contains all the activities and tasks of the target position as well as information on the conditions under which these are performed, for example working hours, place of work and remuneration (Hacker, 1995; Quaas & Raum, 1973; Schuler, 2006). As well as these differences, there is also an area of overlap in the respective results of job analyses and requirement analyses. For example, descriptions of work and qualifications, knowledge and skills for a position or job can be ascertained both by a job analysis and by a requirement analysis. For this reason, it is more practical for application to use the English term job and work analysis.