Electro Medical Systems, S.A. ("EMS") appeals from a judgment of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York holding U.S. Patents 3,882,638, 3,972,123, and 4,412,402 infringed and not invalid, and awarding increased damages and attorney fees based on its finding of willful infringement. Electro Medical Sys., S.A. v. Cooper Life Sciences, Inc., Civ. Action No. CV-86-0607 (E.D.N.Y. Aug. 25, 1993) (final judgment order).*fn1 We affirm-in-part and reverse-in-part.