Soil and water salinity is a major challenge for the agricultural community and policy makers in terms of meeting the burgeoning population’s demand for food and other agricultural commodities. In coastal regions, climate change and sea level rise will aggravate the problem with more and more areas becoming saline due to intrusion of sea water. As such there is a pressing need for modern tools and innovative techniques for the identification of salty soils and poor-quality waters, crop production, soil reclamation and lowering the water table in waterlogged areas. Tackling next-generation problems such as contamination of soil and underground water due to fluoride and arsenic, as well as developing multi-stress tolerant crops is also a high priority. Further, techniques for domesticating halophytes, mangrove-based aquacultures, using seaweed cultures as agricultural crops and integrated farming systems need to be perfected. This book addresses all these aspects in detail, highlighting the diverse solutions to tackle the complex problem of salinity and waterlogging and safer management of poor-quality waters. With chapters written by leading experts, it is a valuable resource for researchers planning future investigations, policy makers, farmers and other stakeholders, and for students wanting insights into vital issues of environment.